Atlantis is sometimes referred to as the oldest science fiction tale in existence. Only those who are unfamiliar with the ancient world, however, can think that it was only a myth because to the ancients it was not only real history, but a legend so important that their entire civilizations practically revolved around it. One thing is clear: to the ancients, the story of Atlantis was fact, not fiction.
The legend of Atlantis made its way to the West through the works of Plato about 2,400 years ago, but this story is actually much older. Roughly 2,600 years ago, the Greek statesman, Solon (known as the “father of democracy”), traveled to Egypt and met with the high priests of the land. This trip was widely documented by Greek historians as Solon was a legendary figure even in his own time; consequently we know for certain that the trip did take place and even where the meeting was held.
The Egyptian priests were known in those days as the best keepers of ancient history and they presented Solon with their most ancient historic records, or what may be considered as their version of the biblical “Genesis.” Here, Solon first learned about the lost island where civilization had begun. He was so taken by the story that he spent the rest of his life compiling and translating the records to the Greek tongue, changing all the Egyptian names to Greek, and naming this island “Atlantis”. At the time however, it was also known by various other names throughout the ancient world, and it is important to note that many people even today wrongly assume that Atlantis must have been in the Atlantic Ocean; in fact no one knows the original name before Solon’s translations – the “prehistoric” world would not have even known what an ocean is (names like the Atlantic Ocean and the Pillars of Hercules are actually relatively modern Greek names and the original names used have been long lost).
About two hundred years later, Plato got hold of this treasured text and relayed the legend in the form of dialogues in his “Timaeus” and “Critias.” The Egyptians had told Solon that this was the island was where the art of civilization truly began, and that the Greek and the Egyptian cultures were merely off-shoots of that original civilization. They also said that the island was submerged around 9,600 BC and had been in existence for many thousands of years before the great flood.
While the modern world continues to wonder about whether Atlantis was real or not, one thing is for certain. To the Egyptian priests, Solon, and Plato, and in fact all of our distant ancestors, the story was based on real events that took place on a real island. What strikes one most when reading Plato’s Critias is the astounding number of physical clues and dimensions provided about the island, the great plain at its southern foothills, and the sacred Acropolis Hill located at the heart of the island’s capital,AtlantisCity.
Today’s generation is the first in history that has the technological capability to search the ocean depths, and the world’s first detailed underwater map of the eastern Mediterranean seafloor was produced especially for the Cyprus-Atlantis Project.
After ten years of research and the creation of proprietary maps and 3D models, Robert Sarmast has discovered astounding evidence of the sunken isle of Atlantis (or some might call it Eden), a lost land mass that many believe to be the prehistoric cultural source of Western civilization. The theory put forth in Robert Sarmast’s book “Discovery of Atlantis: the Startling Case for the Island of Cyprus” was published by Origin Press in October of 2003 and caused a news sensation as it was the first time a real underwater landmass had been matched with Plato’s detailed description of Atlantis. Over fifty physical matches were provided.
Shortly after the publication of the book, Robert traveled to Cyprusand spent the next year preparing for a scientific expedition, which occurred in November of 2004. The astonishing results of this expedition (sonar generated images of the seafloor) created headlines around the world as the images showed clear evidence of man-made structures fifty miles from the nearest shore, and one mile under water, exactly where Robert had been predicted they would be.
Cyprus in its current form appears to be the mountaintop of what used be a larger island, most of which is currently under water. An underwater valley stretching between Cyprus and Syria appears to be the “great plain” of Atlantis, and an underwater mountain in the middle of this valley appears to be the Acropolis Hill of Atlantis City, our main target area.
What are the elements that convinced you to concentrate your researches in a little area of the eastern Mediterranean region?
The main elements revolve around these facts: The high, mountainous island that is described in Plato’s “Critias” could not have been submerged unless it was in a basin that was flooded, and that of course is now associated with theMediterranean Sea. The water levels of oceans simply do not rise and fall dramatically. We know directly from the text that the disaster which sunk Atlantis was connected to an event that transpired in the easternMediterranean. We know that the legend comes from theEastern Mediterranean. We know that civilization was founded in the easternMediterranean. And we know that the original written text (which was translated by the Egyptians and later by Greeks) could have only been authored in the vicinity of the easternMediterranean.Cyprusis at the very heart of the ancient world, directly in the middle of all ancient civilizations. Cypriot mythology to this very day says that the home of the so-called gods was to the south of their island. All of the concentrated forms of ancient mythologies about this unique race and the flood stories came from this part of the world. We now know that theMediterraneandid indeed experience a catastrophic flood in association with violent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. When you put all this together the question becomes: why would people be looking anywhere else?
What was the process in the map making of the seafloor?
I searched the world for good data for the easternMediterraneanin the late 1990’s, without success. By chance I lived inBoulder,Coloradoat the time and NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) had a presence there. I arranged for a meeting with their geophysicists. These scientists showed me their own master database and available maps, but their data was not adequate for creating high resolution maps. Then they remembered than an Israeli geophysicist, Dr. John K. Hall, who is the world’s foremost expert in the eastern Mediterranean region, had sent them data which had been collected by a Russian vessel in the late 1980’s. They showed me the area that the vessel had obtained the data and it was exactly the area I was interested in, which happened to be the least studied part of the northeasternMediterranean. These geophysicists sent me the digital data a few weeks later and thus the map-making process began in earnest. The process of creating maps and 3d models took place between the years 2000 and 2003.
The next sets of maps were produced using the latest data acquired by IFREMER in November of 2003 or (http://www.ifremer.fr/sismer/catal/campagne/campagne.htql?crno=3020140). This data was acquired using newer technology and allowed us to create much higher resolution models that showed the area believed to be the Acropolis in greater detail, ultimately giving us a close up look at the hill and all its distinct features.
It was generally believed that Atlantis was somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean. What convinced you that it was in the Mediterranean?
When you think of Plato’s account, it is absolutely vital to keep its original source in mind. The original account could not possibly have mentioned an “Atlantic Ocean” since this is a relatively modern name. Before that it was known as the “SeaofAtlas.” The incredibly detailed records which the Egyptian priests gave to Solon were reportedly handed down for nine thousand years (counting from 2,600 B.C.). Obviously, the people who recorded the intricate details of the island must have been around to see it before the flood, which means that the original authors were living in what we call prehistoric times. After all, Atlantis was considered by the ancient world to be the source of all civilization, which existed in the so–called Golden Age.
Accordingly, Plato wrote in the Critias that the original account of Atlantis was written in a language even older than the Egyptian tongue, and that the Egyptian priests had translated the original text to their own language long ago. As is always the case with translations (particularly the translation of geographical terms), name changes and errors must have been inevitably imported into the Atlantis legend. Then Solon got a hold of it and changed things around even more when he translated the text to Greek, which explains why the name Atlantis is not commonly found before his era. We do not even have the Egyptian records so it’s impossible to trust the integrity of the geographical terminology, but it’s safe to say that people living 11,600 years ago in the Near East didn’t have the remotest clue as to what or where “Atlantic Ocean” was. These primitive people could not have even known the difference between a sea and an ocean and modern translations still reflect this common confusion.
To say that the Pillars of Herculesand the Seaof Atlasare synonymous with the Straitof Gibraltarand the Atlantic Oceanis careless assumption, not fact. Even Strabo, the ancient world’s most authoritative geographer, said it could be in many different places.
The original authors of the legend lived at a markedly primitive time when the earth was considered to be flat and have an “edge,” enclosed within a giant bubble that was floating in a cosmic ocean. It’s vital to project back to these ancient people’s conception of the world and see things through their eyes. Even in Solon and Plato’s day “the world” meant little more than the southern parts ofEurope, the northern parts ofAfrica, and theNear East, all of which were surrounded by theSeaofAtlas. In other words, theAtlanticas they knew it was not only to the west, but also to the north, east and south.
In short, to say that the Pillars of Hercules is the Strait of Gibraltar is the same as saying that people living 11,000 years ago in the Near East were not only aware of the Gibraltar Strait but also had a name for it, and used it as a common point of reference! That would be like saying that prehistoric men in the Near East knew what existed at the westernmost edge of the European continent at a time when nothing remotely close to a civilization existed anywhere near the region. The common association with theAtlantic Oceanand theStraitofGibraltaris illogical and based on faulty conjecture.
There are many other clues in my book that point to theMediterraneanas the place where the disaster took place, and they are studied in-depth. In any case, I’m certainly not the first author to say that Atlantis could not have possibly been in theAtlantic; the most popular theory today places Atlantis in Santorini, just north ofCretein the easternMediterranean.Cyprusis only a few hundred miles away.
I would like to know how you prepared the expedition. What type of work did you do and what research did you conduct to lead you to the discovery?
This research has been ongoing for at least ten years and has taught me about things I never imagined I would study. Deep sea surveys are incredibly complicated and I spent years studying the logistics and potential problems associated with multibeam and side-scan sonar readings, the collection and analyzing of the raw data, its conversion to maps and models, and the interpretational skills required to make sense of the whole thing. There is good reason why we know more about the surface of Mars than about our own seas and ocean floors. The main obstacles are the fact that radar does not penetrate water and only sonar can be utilized for surveys, which requires long voyages aboard research vessels, specialized equipment, experienced professionals, and of course, huge budgets.
To solve the mystery of Atlantis, this bathymetric mapping knowledge has to be intelligently combined with an in-depth understanding of life and viewpoints in so-called prehistoric times, comparative world mythology, ancient history, geophysics, oceanography, biblical studies, archaeology, and of course, a microscopic analysis of Plato’s “Critias.” The archaeologists and geologists who so casually form opinions about Atlantis usually have no training in the multiple disciplines needed for this research. A person could study the subject for decades and still have things to learn, and those who have know that a degree in earth sciences will not even come close to adequately preparing someone to reach conclusions about it. If it was easy to figure out, it wouldn’t be the world’s most perplexing mystery.
I would like to have information about the undersea research. What did you do and with what equipment? Did you meet with difficulties?
The expedition was not easy to put together, mainly because the equipment and specialists we needed for the job are not readily found in this part of the world. For deep sea surveys you need a fairly large ship with an A-frame, a huge winch, thousands of meters of triple-armored cable for lowering the sonar, a side-scan sonar unit that is specially designed for working a mile or more below water as it is dragged behind the ship, the computers needed to collect and analyze the data, and the specialists to work the equipment and make a very complicated project succeed. Going to those depths is a bit like going to the moon and the task is fraught with various dangers. Because you have to assemble each of these parts from various places, and in this case from far away locations (except for the ship), the main challenge is to get them all in one place at one time for the minimum amount of money and the least probability of complications. I think we had at least several dozen delays and problems before everything came together, and even though people had told me how difficult this kind of thing is, it was still really unbelievable. The expedition was finally conducted by combining three companies fromCyprus,EnglandandAmerica. EDT inCyprusprovided the vessel and crew, GSE inUKprovided the winch, cable and sonar along with a specialist, and Phoenix International from theUSprovided three sonar specialists who were also experts in the use of the Remote Operated Vehicle. Some of these companies have worked on the Titanic discovery/recovery operations and they are among the most professional and experienced underwater researchers in the world.
Regarding the main difficulties we encountered during the trip, they largely revolved around the fact that water and electricity simply do not mix. The first major problem of the expedition was a busted hydraulic pump for the winch, which miraculously was fixed overnight. The real problem however, came during the second day of the expedition. The generator for the winch, which sits on deck and is about the size of a huge walk-in closet, blew out dramatically during the night and there was no way of fixing it. I came out of my cabin in the morning and found everyone looking down at the floor so I immediately knew something terrible had occurred. This happened while the sonar was dangling in the water with 2,500 meters of cable out and now there was no way of bringing it to surface, which meant that we couldn’t go back to the port or else the unit would crash on the seafloor. Eventually we had to keep moving to keep the sonar afloat while another ship came dangerously close to us and used its crane to pick up the old generator and replace it with a new one, with both ships in motion! If the huge generator spun too much at the end of the line it would have snapped our sonar cable and that would have cut people to pieces, not to mention the loss of very expensive equipment. The crew was extremely nervous as it was very risky, rarely done, and as the experienced sonar specialists told me later, something they had never seen before. I was told that they said they had never seen an expedition survive the problems we encountered so I consider us quite lucky.
You claim that at a depth of 1,500 meters you found evidences of human buildings. What are these?
We have never claimed to have found buildings, but rather prominent structures surrounding what we believe to be the Acropolis Hill. These include protective walls, river paths, canals and other prominent features that one would expect to find underwater after so many thousands of years of sedimentation. The point is that these formations on the seabed match Plato’s description of the Acropolis Hill with such precision that it is truly astounding – it’s all there including the exact measurements. All of these anomalies on the seafloor happen to be on and around a particular hill that I have been pointing to for years, and even provided exact coordinates for in my book which was published before we had the new maps and saw the hill up close. Finding actual buildings and the like will require another expedition and the utilization of very specialized machines that can look under the silt. That will be the next phase of operation.
In your opinion the hillside territory matches Plato’s description of the Acropolis hill with perfect precision. Could you explain me what you mean when you say that your discovery matches the nearly 50 clues in Plato’s descriptions?
If you bother to read Plato’s “Critias” and focus on the listed physical clues instead of the account about the gods etc., the first thing that strikes you is that the document reads like a treasure map. It’s important to understand thatAtlantisIslandlooked very peculiar, and was anything but your usual flat and disc-shaped island, with many unique and outstanding features that would have made it stick out like a sore thumb. The description focuses largely on the shape and nature of the island, a rectangular valley at its foothills, and the capital City. The island itself rose dramatically from the sea and shot up to a great height with a peak that was considered to be one of the highest elevations in the ancient world. The landmass was elongated and stretched in an east/west direction, with lots of trees and flowers, a lot of minerals and precious metals, great weather year-round and very fertile ground for farming all kinds of fruits and vegetables. It was the world’s most beautiful garden. At its southern foothills there was a flat and rectangular valley that also stretched in an east/west direction. This valley faced south, was near sea level and it was where all the cities of the island were located. This “great plain of Atlantis” was sheltered from the cold winds by a high mountain range to the north. In the middle of this valley was the capital of Atlantis Island, which was called Atlantis City, and it was about seven miles from the sea to the south. The ancients literally listed dozens of dimensions about this area including the exact diameter of this walled city and how it was protected by three concentric canals which surrounded the Acropolis Hill at its center. You can actually draw a city plan based on these detailed descriptions as I have in my book.
You can see that we have a lot of information about Atlantis, and anyone who says they found it has to at least match a good portion of these clues. Most of the time, however, people who claim they’ve found Atlantis don’t bother to match any of them. What I have done is match them one by one withCyprusand its environs, something that has never been done before. If you read the material you will see that the idea that dozens upon dozens of perfect matches regarding the shape and nature of the island, the plain and the city could all be coincidental is even more bizarre than the claim that Atlantis has been found.
In your opinion, what remains of Cyprus today is just the mountaintop of the old Atlantis peninsula. In your hypothesis, how did Atlantis sink beneath sea level?
Just a couple of decades ago, scientists began to realize that theMediterranean Seahas a highly unusual history. They found a thick layer of crystallized salt under the silt on the seafloor, up to a kilometer thick, which along with additional evidence showed that theMediterraneanhad experienced numerous periods of desiccation. In fact, the salt layer was so thick that some estimated that the Mediterranean must have dried up and refilled up to forty times in the last few millions years. Through the years of studies it became apparent that theGibraltarStraitis at times a dam, closing up when the European and African tectonic plates move closer together. These huge pieces of the earth’s crust are alternately being pushed apart and then being pulled toward one another again. When they move close together theGibraltarbecomes a dam and theMediterraneanevaporates within one to four thousand years, leaving only shallow lakes and lagoons and a thick layer of salt on the basin floor. When the tectonic plates move apart again, there is tremendous seismic activity, volcanic activity, and theGibraltardam breaks and creates a waterfall that is described as being one thousand times larger thanNiagara Falls, bordering on the unimaginable. TheAtlantic Oceanthen pours into what is virtually an empty basin like a faucet filling an empty bathtub, racing across the basin floor and then rising slowly until the whole Mediterranean basin is filled to its current level. The Mediterranean basin is 2,500 miles long and 500 miles wide, so this is a huge area which requires several hundred years to completely fill up with water, even when there’s literally an ocean of water rushing in. Again, this is not hypothesis but fact, it has been proven to have happened numerous times and we know that someday in the future it will happen again. The scientists who describe the scene are almost bewildered by the spectacle, but then we are talking about one of the most geologically active areas in the world (see the work of Dr. Kenneth Hsu).
My research consisted of first mapping the eastern Mediterranean seafloor, which took our geophysicists several years to complete using the best data and the latest cutting-edge technology available. We then created special software that allowed us to accurately simulate the lowering of the Mediterranean water level in order to see what would appear in the region when the sea was much lower than today. And this is how we found a perfect match with Plato’s description. TheislandofAtlantissunk below the waves through an almost unimaginable set of geological events, including massive earthquakes that rocked the Mediterranean world, volcanic eruptions that displaced millions of tons of rock, and a torrential flood that filled the Mediterranean basin with a tremendous body of water. The displacement of mass through volcanic eruptions, along with the tremendous weight of the water that filled the Mediterranean basin, conspired to push down on the mantle causing the subsidence of the eastern Mediterranean seafloor. So in effect the island went under the waves through the combined effects of rising coastlines and sinking basins.
Getting more technical, the Atlantis city kingdom is said to have flourished from around 11,000 BC and to have been destroyed by ‘an epochal flood’ somewhere between 9600-9550 BC. You claim this to have been the result of the breach of the so-called ‘Gibraltar Dam’. However, there is now a high level of agreement among earth scientists that this final breach took place 5.3 million – repeat, million years ago – with the subsequent and final re-flooding of the basin taking place in the century that followed.
There is a whole chapter dedicated to this topic in Discovery of Atlantis, but I will provide a few basic points here. First, it should be noted that gathering knowledge about the geological history of theMediterraneanis a brand new science, barely in a stage of infancy. Just twenty years ago even the notion that theMediterraneanwas ever devoid of water would have been rejected and ridiculed as nonsense. It was authoritatively asserted that theMediterraneanhad continually been a sea for the last 90 million years. Now we know that the real story is quite different and that it may have dried up and refilled again up to forty times since that time.
The amount of data compiled over the last few decades and the number of comprehensive surveys conducted by scientific expeditions are few and far in between. The bathymetric maps and models we’ve developed for the book constitute humanity’s first relatively detailed peek at the eastern Mediterranean seafloor. For heaven’s sake, we’ve just begun to be able to even see it, much less understand everything that has gone on here, one of the world’s most geologically active areas. The process of accumulating solid data has barely just begun. There is very little scientific data, and lots of room for conjecture.
Scientists know that roughly 18,000 year ago, there was not just one Mediterranean Sea, but three. Furthermore, we know for a fact that the Mediterraneanhas been subject to repeated floodings, occurring forty times or more times in its long and turbulent existence. The age of each of these events is unknown. Our technological means are simply not at a level where we can reach concrete conclusions about such complex phenomenon. Nor do we have the technological wherewithal to date the break of the Gibraltardam, even though we know the European and African plates often meet and diverge. An article published by the Encyclopedia Britannica puts it this way: “Where plate boundaries adjoin continents, matters often become very complex and have demanded an ever denser thicket of ad hoc modifications and amendments to the theory and practice of plate tectonics in the form of microplates, obscure plate boundaries, and exotic terrains. A good example is the Mediterranean where the collisions between Africa and a swarm of microcontinents have produced a tectonic nightmare that is far from resolved. More disturbingly, some of the present plate boundaries especially in the eastern Mediterranean appear to be so diffuse and so anomalous that they cannot be compared to the three types of plate boundaries of the basic theory.”
Finally, I would submit what may be the most intriguing question of all. We have records from ancient geographers stating that they knew about theGibraltardisaster. I repeat, ancient people knew about theGibraltardisaster that turned what was once a dam into what is presently a strait, allowing theAtlanticand theMediterraneanto meet. The very reason that theStraitofGibraltaris associated with the Pillar of Hercules is that the ancients believed that Hercules had pushed those pillars apart, thus connecting theAtlanticwith theMediterranean. Pray tell, how did our ancestors know that this present eight-mile wide strait was once a dam? All the science in the world will never be able to explain how our ancestors knew about this event if they were not around to see it. Logic dictates that without actually witnessing the break of theGibraltarand the tragedy that followed, such knowledge would not have been available to the ancients. This means that the last ensuing flood may not have happened five million years ago as some believe, but could have occurred at a much later date when humans lived in and around the Mediterranean basin.
None of this is new. Listen to H.G. Wells tell the story in “The Outline of History” (1921) as he gave a chilling account of the disaster at the Gibraltar and the Mediterranean flooding, which he dated as an event which happened 10-30 thousand years ago: “Now, this may seem all the wildest speculation, but it is not entirely so, for if we examine a submarine contour map of the Straits of Gibraltar, we find there is an enormous valley running up from the Mediterranean deep, right through the Straits, and trenching some distance out on to the Atlantic shelf. … This refilling of the Mediterranean, which by the rough chronology we are employing in this book may have happened somewhere between 30,000 and 10,000 B.C., must have been one of the greatest single events in the pre-history of our race. … Suddenly the ocean waters began to break through over the westward hills and to pour in upon these primitive peoples—the lake that had been their home and friend became their enemy; its waters rose and never abated; their settlements were submerged; the waters pursued them in their flight. Day by day and year by year the waters spread up the valleys and drove mankind before them. Many must have been surrounded and caught by the continually rising salt flood. It knew no check; it came faster and faster; it rose over the tree-tops, over the hills, until it had filled the whole basin of the present Mediterranean and until it lapped the mountain cliffs of Arabia and Africa. Far away, long before the dawn of history, this catastrophe occurred.”
There are much adverse criticisms for your hypothesis. Many archaeologists here in Italy and elsewhere are skeptical. What can you answer to people that doubt of your discovery?
As I have said many times a degree in archaeology or geology, or any one field, is not sufficient to give you an understanding of something as complicated as Atlantis. You will need to understand many more fields before you can get a proper perspective on the subject, and many of the prerequisites are not taught in universities. Keep in mind that the most you can learn in universities about ancient history goes no further than ancient Greek and Egyptian history, which is usually no more than two or three thousand years ago. When we look at the most ancient records from humanity’s primordial past we find that the story of this epochal event, known by different names by different civilizations, was already considered to be old news – something that had happened long before even the Sumerians living five thousand years ago.
The subject of Atlantis is not an easy one; casual reading will not prepare you for it. Many of the world’s greatest minds have been obsessed by it, and the people responsible for relaying the legend are none other than Plato, Solon (the father of democracy), and the high priests of ancient Egypt who were known as the best keepers of ancient history. These people were no fools, and the ancient world did not relay to this legend to us as myth but as real history. If you study the topic long enough you will understand that this was actually considered to be sacred text, and the legend was revered around the ancient world. Think of the last three thousand years as the latest chapter of human history, with Moses, Jesus and Mohammed and the effect they left on the “holy land.” If you go back one chapter to an earlier time and study life in that era, you will come to understand that Atlantis or Eden or Hesperides, whatever you want to call it, was their “holy land,” and was treated as such. Imagine if our holy land was wiped out due to natural disasters and people living ten thousand years from now rejected that it ever existed because they couldn’t find the actual landmass. Well, when they look at its effect on our history and how it played such a central role in so many different ways, then they would be able to infer that it must have been a real place. Atlantis can be viewed in the same fashion, but we will find its physical remains to prove the point.
My problem with some modern scientists is that they fail to follow the scientific process and come to conclusions without proper testing – the very thing science was set up to insure against. People expect them to know everything and they are compelled to put on an air of omniscience even though every few years they have to rewrite everything, particularly when it comes to geological knowledge which is basically a new science. The oldest civilization we know of belongs to the Sumerians, who appear suddenly on the world stage with a fully developed culture embracing an established alphabet, agriculture, social laws, religion, architecture, pottery, weaving, and everything else we consider to be civilization. And yet we know not where they sprung from. In other words, we currently do not know where civilization began. Now, the ancient world was quite adamant that they did know where it started, and even provided highly detailed accounts of the island including even its dimensions. We have barely begun to chart the seafloors. Do you not think it would be prudent to search the seafloors before coming to conclusions? How can scientists say on one hand that they don’t know where civilization started, and on the other hand just outright reject the ancient world’s answer without even bothering to look first? Is this science, or prejudice?
Nevertheless, such has always been the way. We know so little about our ancient history and so much of it has been mixed up with fantasy that people are at a loss. A couple of hundred years agoBabylonand many of those biblical sites that we now know as real places were considered to be no more than fairy tales. And everyone knows aboutTroy. The source of the problem seems insurmountable: science cannot go beyond known facts, and the prerequisite for finding Atlantis is to venture into unknown territory. So science has a line in the sand that it cannot cross. Only someone with a multidisciplinary understanding and freedom from the establishment’s indoctrination about taboo subjects can venture there, and not surprisingly, many of the biggest discoveries have been made by precisely these types of people.
Opinions are just opinions, they’re cheap and everybody has one. I care only about facts. This is not about forming a hypothesis and just leaving it at that – Atlantis is either there or it is not there, and I aim to find out.